No. 48 September, 1959
FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
PROVINCE OF ONTARIO
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Division of Fish and Wildlife
(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTER-DEPARTMENTAL INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION)
Hon. J. W. Spooner F. A. MacDougall
Minister Deputy Minister
TABLE OF CONTENTS
No. 48 September, 1959
Control of Nuisance Beaver by Means of an Electric Fence.
- by K.J. Tolmie 1
Report on Meeting to Discuss the Deer Habitat Management
Project in South Canonto Township, Tweed District Office,
August 28, 1958. 3
Progress Report on the Management of Cedar Swamps in South
Canonto Township, May 29, 1959. - by J.W. Keenan 6
Moose Tagging Program, Sioux Lookout District, 1959.
- by D.W. Simkin and E.H. Stone 14
Methods and Costs of Collecting Moose Returns, Fort
Arthur District, 1958 Season. - by D.D'Agostini 17
Marking Wing Struts on Beaver and Otter Aircraft for
Surveys. - by Tom Cook 20
Pelee Island Pheasant Shoot - 1958, Statistics and
Comments. - by L.J. Stock 24
Mid-winter Waterfowl Inventory, Ontario, 1959.- by O.F. Boyer 26
Northern Distribution of Woodcock in Ontario.- by G.F. Boyer 28
Some Observations of the Behaviour of a Pack of Wolves in
Winter. - by Bruce Turner 32
Wolf Poisoning Experiment, Kenora District, 1959.
- by M. Linklater 34
Cont. TABLE OF CONTENTS. 2 No. l*S, September, 1959
Wolf Project for Sioux Lookout District, 1959.
- by J.B. Sayers 40
Wolf Poisoning Project, Port Arthur District,
East Side, 1959. - by E.J. Swift 47
Wolf Poisoning Project, Port Arthur District,
West Side, 1959. - by W.J. McKeown 51
Occurrence of the Black Crappie, Pomoxis nigromaculatus
in the Ontario Waters of Lake Superior. - by R.A. Ryder 53
The Effect of Distributing Eyed Whitefish ( Coregonus
clupeaformis Mitchill), and Yellow Pickerel ( Stizostedion
vitreum , Mitchill), Eggs on the Commercial Fisheries of
Rainy Lake, Ontario. - by C.A. Elsey 54
(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA- DEPARTMENTAL
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION)
Digitized by the Internet Archive
- 1 -
CONTROL OF NUISANCE BEAVER BY MANS OF AN ELECTRIC FENCE
K. J. Tolmie
At the present time we are carrying out a project in the
Port Arthur District for the control of nuisance beaver by means of
an electric fence unit where dams threaten to wash out roads and
The writer has used this method in Durham County in 1955
with success at two sites. However, the project was carried out under
ideal conditions and could not, under those circumstances, be con-
sidered a successful control measure.
The Oliver Township Council in the Port Arthur District
requested help with their nuisance beaver and at their council
meeting the writer suggested control by means of the electric fence
which the council approved and purchased one unit for trial.
This unit was set up by the writer on June 8, 1959* on
Lot k t Concession 2, Oliver Township, ^nd to date has been successful
in stopping the reconstruction of the dam and blocking of the culvert.
However, it is yet in early stages and complications may still set in.
Officials from the C. P. Railway and Marks and Lybster
Townships have visited this site and from their investigations have
decided to purchase a unit for their own areas.
We realize this method will have to be set up a number of
times during the year; however, this factor will be determined on
completion of this project which will take at least one year.
The following shows the equipment and methods used:
1 Shur Shot 6 volt electric fence unit,
1-6 volt dry cell battery,
Insulators, number determined by distance,
#9 soft wire,
1 ground post,
Stakes (these o-in be cut around the area of fence).
- 2 -
1. Take out centre portion of dam until the water reaches its
2. Drive post, set unit off ground on post.
3. Drive stake into ground - attached to stake is the ground
4. Drive stakes and attach wire, keeping wire approximately
1^" off water. String wire the distance required, making
sure there is no obstruction to short the wire.
5. Attach positive wire to line; set unit at "high."
6. To test to see if unit is working, use a blade of grass.
The first week, the unit should be left on 'high* for the
whole week. The second week, the unit is left on 9 high ? every other
day. The third week, the unit is left on 'high 9 one day in the middle
of the week. Following this procedure, the unit is removed, leaving
- 3 -
REPORT OF MEETING TO DISCUSS THE DEER HABITAT
MANAGEMENT PROJECT IN SOUTH CANONTO TOWNSHIP
TWEED DISTRICT OFFICE - Aug , 28, 1958
Project Regeneration - TW-169-58
Personnel - The following personnel were in attendance:
R.C, Passraore - District Forester, Tweed
D,H, Burton - Division of Research, Maple
ReLo Hepburn - Division of Research, Maple
A,T. Cringan - Division of Fish & Wildlife, Toronto
G„ Sinclair - Division of Research, South-Eastern Region
J.K, McEwen - Division of Research, South-Eastern Region
J.W. Keenan - Division of Timber, Tweed
The meeting was called to discuss the progress of the Deer
Habitat Management Project with particular reference to the work
carried out during the summer and winter of 1957-58, and the proposed
program for the year 1958-59, with specific reference to the roles to
be undertaken by the various people involved in the project.
Because some of those present had not previously been
closely associated with this project, Alec Cringan briefly discussed
the program from its inception,, He explained that this area had at
one time been very productive for deer but the population had
declined seriously in recent years It is believed that, contrary to
local opinion, hunting pressure is not the reason for this because a
deer population can normally survive an annual kill of one third of
its numbers. The wildlife biologists feel that the deterioration of
the deer habitat is responsible for the population decline. One
important facet of this deterioration is tho overmaturity of most
cedar swamps in the area, the resultant low volume and low nutritive
value of available browse. Therefore, the experimental work in cedar
swamp management was conceived to attempt to remedy this situation.
Because of the excellent sprnce growing in these swamps with the
cedar, the management of the spruce becomes an important part of the
overall plan. At the present time, the positive response of the deer
is considered only a by-product of this swamp management.
He summarized the objectives of this work as follows: -
"The Deer Habitat Management Project is experimental rather than
operational in nature. Its objectives are to develop silvicultural
techniques, for the management of forest lands, that will result in
improved habitat conditions for white-tailed deer and, at the same
time, continue the production of commercially valuable forest
The 1957-58 work in the Whitesucker Creek was discussed and
agreement was general that the commercial operation carried out was
excellent, particularly when the prevailing market conditions are
- 4 -
taken into account. The unfinished blocks - C & E - will be
completed during the present year. Keenan reported that arrangements
have been made to complete the treatments under Cringan 1 s plan. This
will consist of the removal by cutting or by frill - girdling and
poisoning of all the marked stems not utilized during the operation.
Funds in the amount of $1000. have been made available through
Project Regeneration to carry out this work and also to complete the
layout of the operations for this year.
Cringan expressed the feeling that too many cutting systems
were tried out on too small an area. This met with general agreement.
It was, therefore, decided that the number cf treatments would be
reduced and the treatment areas enlarged.
Because advance growth seems to release excellently in
small stand openings, a basic system of group shelterwood cutting was
supported. This system will be compared with a straight commercial
Cringan observed that following the cut the deer food had
greatly improved through the development of root suckers in ash, the
release of cedar, and the development of maple.
Because Cringan would not be able to actively participate
in further work on the area and in order to establish a definite
alignment for future work on the area, it was felt necessary to
define the part to be played by the various groups co-operating in
A general discussion of the work requirements ensued and
the following breakdown of the workload resulted:
1. Determine the comparative distribution of deer both inside
and outside the cut areas. Past studies conducted throughout
the general area will serve as a basis for assessing the results
obtained from this project.
2. Study the relationship between the number of deer and the
abundance of browse - the food rupply balance - both inside and
outside the swamp areas. This will involve a browse study as
well as a study of the nutrition levels of the browse.
1« Carry out regeneration surveys to determine the amount of
advance growth present before cutting and to assess the results
of the cutting methods in terms of regeneration and release of
advance growth. This study will be conducted only on the swamp
areas, with the exception that if the project succeeds in
increasing the local population of deer, there may be some
detrimental effects on certain valuable tree species, such as
- 5 -
white pine, in the areas adjacent to the swamps. If such were
the case the study would be expanded to include the swamp
Included in this survey will be a study of swamp sites to
establish the pore pattern and moisture regimes.
2. Plan silvicultural cutting systems and carry out tree mark-
ing in swamp areas to prepare the areas for cutting operations*
Assistance will be given by Wildlife Research and the Tweed
District Timber staff in devising the cutting systems.
Tweed District Timber Staff
1. Arrange for and supervise commercial operations to be
carried out in the swamp areas. This may involve assistance to
the operator in locating a market for certain products such as
2. Carry out studies to determine gross and net volume scales,
ages and growth data to assist in establishing the character of
the present timber stand on the area. This will provide a basis
for historical comparison.
3. Broadly compare the relative degree of utilization obtained
under the various cutting systems.
4. Analyse the revenues obtained from the operations.
In order to ensure that adequate records are kept of the
deer habitat work in South Canonto it was felt advisable to keep all
records in one place. It was further decided that the Tweed District
Office would be the most suitable place to have these records.
The requirements for the current year v s operations were
discussed. Keenan felt that access roads would have to be developed
into the swamps proposed for cutting and this would require additional
funds. Cringan agreed to discuss this problem with Dr. Harkness, In
order that cutting could commence as early as possible, it was agreed
that the marking be completed by the end of September.
In conclusion, it was decided that a visit to the area by
all interested parties would be arranged as quickly as possible, the
time to be arranged by Don Burton. At that time, the immediate
requirements could be discussed on the ground.
- 6 -
PROGRESS REPORT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF CEDAR SWAMPS
IN SOUTH CANONTO TOWNSHIP, MAY 29, 1959
This report summarizes the progress to date (June, 1959) of
the management program in the cedar swamps of South Canonto Township.
Only brief reference is made to the wildlife research aspect of the
program since this will undoubtedly be reported in due course by the
persons directly engaged in the work.
The cedar swamps in South Canonto Township are ideally
suited to an integrated management program, for two main reasons.
l a The maturity of certain of the timber, mainly white spruce and a
resultant infestation of the eastern spruce bark beetle,
Dendroctonus piceaperda , makes it desirable to harvest at least
the mature portions of the stands as a salvage and control
2. The swamps form a part of a much larger deer habitat study area
where research activities are being carried out by R.L. Hepburn
of the Division of Research. Through managed utilization of the
timber in the swamps it is hoped to alter and improve habitat
for the deer.
In 1955* R.L. Hepburn undertook to establish several one
tenth acre plots in the Whitesucker Creek swamp which were cut to
varying densities in an effort to determine the best method of secur-
ing cedar regeneration.
The main effort was started in the summer of 1957 when
A.T. Cringan, biologist with the Division of Fish and Wildlife made
an intensive cruise of a number of swamps in the area as a result of
which he produced a management plan for the Whitesucker Swamp and a
further set of data concerning the other swamps which are to be
logged during the period 1957-1963.
These objectives as set down by Mr. Cringan in his White-
sucker Plan may be considered applicable to all of the swamps in the
1, Improvement of food and shelter facilities for white-tailed deer,
2. Continued production of certain commercially valuable forest
3. Immediate salvage of overmature spruce and elm, and of spruce
subject to windfall and attack by insects,,
4. Provision of experimental facilities for testing various silvi-
cultural techniques o
The management plan for the V/hitesucker Swamp prescribed a
variety of logging techniques controlled by tree marking and compart-
ment outline. The treatments were as follows?
1. Clear-cut of hardwoods.
2. Commercial clearcut - entire compartment.
3. Commercial clear-cut - in NW-SE and NE-SW chain-wide strips plus
removal of spruce in 1 chain strip intervals.
4. Commercial clear-cut in patches.
5. Commercial operation at discretion of operator.
6. Commercial clear-cut in N-S, E-W chain wide strips plus spruce
7. Commercial removal of spruce.
Following the 1957-5$ logging operation, the decision of a
meeting of the South Canonto Project Committee was that too many
cutting systems were tried out on too small an area. As a result it
was decided that the number of future treatments would be reduced and
the treatment areas enlarged.
A - 1957-58 Season
Between January 6th and March 1st, 195$ a logging operation
was conducted on the 41 acre Whitesucker Swamp as planned in the
management plan. The operation was carried out by a jobber of Gillies
Bros. Lumber Company, who 9 s limit #D-1490 contains the study area.
Unfavourable weather conditions forced the postponement of further
operations with approximately 10 acres of swamp remaining uncut, the
area consisting of Blocks C and E as outlined on the accompanying map
of the swamp.
- 8 -
The products removed from the area were as follows I
The revenue derived from stumpage charges amounts to
B - 1958-59 Season
For the 1958-59 season, no timber was marked. The operator
was allowed to carry out a clear-cut of all merchantable material.
This was felt desirable for two reasonss-
1. It would obviate the necessity of marking.
2. It was believed to be as likely as any system to achieve success
in producing a new crop of cedar and spruce.
Two operations were carried out between the period from mid
November to mid February, the first to clean up the Whitesucker Swamp
(#65) and the second to log a portion of a new area - Swamp #'s 127
and 126, known locally as the Wolf Swamp. The swamps planned for
cutting during the year were 129, 137 and 139 but 129 will be operated
next year in the course of a presently planned operation and the other
two were too distant to warrant the cost of road construction. They
will be left until hardwood operations are underway in the vicinity.
The volumes cut were as follows 2
TOTAL 1,675 51,852
- 9 -
The stumpage revenue from this operation is ^3 53 » 52. Thus
the total volume of material cut from the Whitesucker Swamp (#65) was
149,018 FBM for a total revenue to the Crown of $1, 147.33c
2. Wolf Swamp (No*s. 127, 126 .
Species No- Pieces FBM
W. Pine 5 243
W. Spruce 1,554 77,544
Balsam 932 IB, 595
Hemlock 177 11,554
Cedar 1,423 36,136
Maple 2 23 5
Y. Birch 21 1,577
Elm 4 237
Ash 12 713
Poplar 106 5,985
TOTAL 4,236 152,819
The stumpage revenue amounted to $93 5 » 68.
Because of a slump in the log market and a somewhat
optimistic marking of merchantable trees, considerable marked material
remained uncut in the Whitesucker Swamp following the 1957-58
operation. In order to preserve the prescribed treatment variations
it was necessary to remove this uncut material. A budget of ^1,000.
was allotted under Project Regeneration (TW-169-58) and the following
operations were carried outs
1. Remnant marked hardwoods were frill girdled and poisoned with a
solution of l+p (by volume) 245-T (Esteron) in stove oil.
2. A small amount of layer cutting was tried (bending over of small
cedar leaving strip of unbroken cambium) - to induce layering.
3. Marked unmerchantable conifers were cut with a power saw.
None of this work was carried out on the uncut blocks "C i}
and i? E" to which previous reference has been made.
The cost of this work was $274»56, considerably less than
the anticipated cost. However, it had been considered that the
marking for the 1958-59 would also be carried out under this project
so that our decision not to mark reduced the work program considerably.
Concurrent with and following the 1958-59 logging operations
a clean-up project was initiated under Special Stand Improvement
funds. The object was to log cedar posts left behind by the operator,
the posts being manufactured for use in the district Parks. A total
of 3458 posts were cut of which approximately 2958 were forwarded out
- 10 -
to Plovna Tor pick-up by Parks personnel. The balance are still to
be hauled. The cost of the project was $3*370.96, The fairly high
cost is because of the deep snow conditions prevalent at the time the
work was carried out.
Following the first year's operations, it was agreed by all
concerned that there was no benefit to be derived from requiring the
operator to cut only during the winter period. There was little
response on the part of the deer to the food made available, and the
operator was unduly handicapped due to snow conditions. Therefore,
in the second year, operations were allowed to commence as soon as
the swamps could be worked in the fall. There was an increased
response to the available browse during the past year's operations,
although it is still evident that the benefits to be derived are long
range rather than immediate.
Another point which should be noted is that, in general,
our problem would appear to be to release advance growth of spruce
and cedar rather than to secure regeneration. Therefore, our cutting
system must be designed with this in mind.
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Map showing divisions of Whitesucker
Creek Swamp for marking and cutting
numbered picket along haul road,
boundaries are "blazed" with red
- 13 -
To Barrett Chute
/ -/ »/ -rv--' -,'7
4 \>^ / /
$ / " ,< i/ \ "" ~ - \ /
V 0% /
/ To Ompah
/ u Via
/ V ill'/ Location, approximate size and
\J ' 73 shape of swamps cruised;
Numbers refer to type area nos,
on FRI Map Sheet No. 451764.
Figure 2 °.
Portion of South Canonto Township, Frontenac Co.
Location of Coniferous and Mixedwood Swamps
Cruised in 1957
- H -
MOOSE TAGGING PROGRAM, SIOUX LOOKOUT DISTRICT, 1959
D.W. Simkin and E.H. Stone
In the fall of 195B, we discovered that swimming moose
could be approached by helicopter closely enough to put metal tags in
their ears. Unfortunately, we did not have all of the equipment
necessary to do the tagging last fall when the helicopter was avail-
able. We decided, however, that during the following summer we would
make an all-out attempt to tag a number of moose.
As a result, we tagged 21 moose this summer. Since the
technique has not been apparently used before we believe it is worth-
while here reporting.
Areas which were known to be good moose range with an abun-
dance of aquatic habitat and adjacent to hunter access routes were
flown over in the helicopter at an altitude of 1000-1500 feet. By
maintaining the relatively high altitude the observer could scan much
more area while searching for animals.
As soon as a moose was spotted in the water the pilot
descended the aircraft as rapidly as possible in the direction of the
moose. The reason for this obviously was to trap the moose in deep
water as rapidly as possible.
It was at this stage that the skill of our pilot, Mr. Kent,
made the tagging procedure possible for he invariably succeeded in
straddling the swimming moose with the two large rubber floats of the
helicopter and steering it out into deep water (where it was much
easier to work with).
Once the moose was between the floats and the aircraft was
moving along in the water, the observer-tagger clamped a tag in the
pliers which he attached to his wrist by a string and got onto the
pontoon. There he lay down flat projecting himself as far forward as
possible. The reason for this was that it enabled the pilot to
better observe the proceedings (a very important consideration,
especially when operating in a shallow lake where the animal might
possibly touch bottom at any time) .
Tag should be secured
as tight as possible
with point "A" close
to the edge of the
Type of tag
- 15 -
As soon as the aircraft was manouvered into a position
where the proximal ear of the moose could be grabbed the tagger
grabbed it with his left hand and immediately with his right hand, in
which the pliers and tag were firmly held, fastened the tag in the
ear making sure that as long a hold as possible (see diagram) is
grasped by the tag.
Thus the tagging operation is complete. The tagger then
climbed back into the helicopter and recorded on a map the sex and
age of the animal tagged at the location of tagging.
No large bulls were tagged as we believed there would be
some danger of such an animal hitting the comparatively delicate and
very expensive bubble of the aircraft and breaking it. Wherever
possible calves and yearlings were selected. If adult cows were also
present they were taken after tagging the younger known age moose.
The reason for selecting calves and yearlings was because
these were animals of known age. If they happen to be shot by
hunters in subsequent hunting seasons these known age jaws will be
very valuable for evaluating our present wear-class system of aging
Adults of unknown age were also tagged when deemed safe by
Mr. Kent. The reason for this was that we believed these animals
when shot and the location where they were killed is plotted will
provide us with much needed information on moose movements.
Effort and Results
6 moose - 2 calves, 3 yearlings and one adult were tagged
while carrying out an aerial waterfowl survey.
3 moose - 1 adult and 2 calves were tagged while flying to
and from a caribou study area.
12 moose - 5 yearlings and 7 adults were tagged during
6 hours and 5 minutes of flying while specifically looking for moose
Thus 21 moose were tagged from the helicopter during
6 hours and 5 minutes of specific searching, 9 being tagged incidental
to other Fish and Wildlife work projects.
The helicopter costs $50.00 per hour. Thus total cost of
tagging 21 moose (charging one hour for the 9 moose tagged while
doing other projects and 6 hours and 5 minutes for the specific
search) would be $3 50.00 or approximately |l6.60 per tagged moose.
A truer estimate of cost when contemplating a more intensive moose
- 16 -
tagging project can be derived by determining the cost per tagged
moose when specifically looking for moose. Twelve moose were tagged
in slightly over 6 hours. Thus the cost could be estimated at
slightly over $25.00 per moose. This I believe is very reasonable
when compared costs and effort which would be required to get moose
by building corral traps and tagging there.
As a result we intend to use the helicopter again this fall
(incidental to enforcement patrolling) and next July in an all out
effort to tag as many moose as possible.
We believe it would be very desirable to tag as many moose
as possible. Our objective at the present time is 100 tagged moose.
This size of a sample, in hunted areas, should provide us with much
useful information on aging moose and on moose movements throughout
the year when these animals are harvested in the years to come.
Time to Fly
It is a well-known fact that moose feed more extensively at
dawn and dusk. With this in mind we flew on July 12 for 2 hours just
after sun-up and about 2 hours before sundown. Also 2 hours were
flown between 10 a.m. and 12:01 p.m. The results tended to verify
the above mentioned fact for 2 moose were tagged during the early
morning flight; one during mid morning and £ during the evening. One
more was tagged early on the morning of July 13.
1. 21 swimming moose - 4 calves, £ yearlings and 9 adults were tagged
with metal tags from a helicopter.
2. The tagging procedure is described.
3. Large bulls were avoided due to the risk of damage to the bubble
of the aircraft.
4. The cost of tagging moose varied between $16. 60 and $25.00 per
5. A quota of 100 tagged animals has been set.
6. The 2 or 3 hour period just prior to darkness in the evening
appeared to be the best time to look for moose on the water.
7. Moose were tagged only in areas accessible to hunters.
B. Information from tagged animals shot by hunters or recovered by
other means will be useful in evaluating the accuracy of our
moose aging techniques and also in determing movement of these
- 17 -
METHODS AND COSTS OF COLLECTING MOOSE RETURNS
PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT
1. A letter was mailed to all outside issuers early in December
asking that lists of licences sold, not already submitted, be
turned in to the District Office in Port Arthur by December 29?
2. Each hunter, on purchasing his licence at the District Office,
was given a copy of the attached letter and encouraged verbally
to send in his moose return whether he was successful or not,
and if he was successful in bagging a moose, to bring in the
lower jaw. The value of the information gathered from these two
items was explained. As many outside issuers as possible were
contacted and given letters and asked to carry out the same
3. Two thousand notice cards were mailed to delinquent hunters on
January 5? 1959? one hundred and sixty- five on January 14? and
one hundred and seventy-four on January 27? 1959. The address
was typed on rolled gum labels by the Fish and Wildlife Clerk and
the cards stamped and address labels attached by the staff at the
Port Arthur Hatchery.
4. At every meeting attended by the Fish and Wildlife staff during
and after the hunt, the value of turning the moose return forms
and lower jaws in was stressed to the gathering. The press in
both Fort William and Port Arthur carried the same information
as news items, and the Thunder Bay Fish and Game association made
several announcements on their bi-weekly T.V. programme.
5. Cards were left at the Pigeon River Customs Office on which the
Customs Officers recorded the information received from Non-
6. As each card was received at the District Office, it was checked
against a list previously prepared, which consisted of the
numbers of all Resident and Non-Resident Moose Licences sold in
the District. The numbers of all licences on the list corres-
ponding to the numbers on the cards were cancelled. This
prevented duplication of returns.
- id -
Cost of the Project
Stamps $5 13$. 44
Man Days - 26 @ $15 .00 390.00
Miscellaneous 2 5.00
TOTAL $ 553.44
Cost Per Return 20„7£
Collection of cards from the Customs Officers was carried
out during regular patrols.
No effort was made to separate the cards estimated as
turned in voluntarily and those received as a result of the notices.
The effort at the Customs resulted in 110 cards being
turned in. We believe it represents 100% of the kill, plus some
1. That the information on the notice card be rearranged so that it
can be torn in half before returning.
2. That we sell the licences through the Department outlets only
as previously recommended, or (a) that the numbers on the
licences sent to issuers in the District run consecutively and a
complete list of issuers with the licence numbers they received
be forwarded to the District Office as soon as licences are
mailed to the issuers or (b) that all licences to be sold in each
District be forwarded to the Districts concerned along with a list
of issuers and numbers of licences sold last year. These to be
in the hands of the District by the first week in August so that
our officers may deliver the licences in person during their
regular patrols. This will enable the officers to express verbally
to the issuer the importance of mailing in on time an accurate
legible list of his sales. The time, accuracy, and legibility is
very important. One list of sales was received on April 15, and
another on May 14. On the issuer's returns, it is also important
that lists of sales to residents and to non-residents be kept on
- 19 -
The sale of the licences last year was very trying to our
staff as we were continually called by the issuers regarding licences.
A complete new system of checking and recording returns
had to be implemented because of the outside issuer, and this was
very time consuming.
This is not intended in any way to reflect on any person
or persons as their problem last season is realized.
- 20 -
MARKING WING STRUTS ON BEAVER AND OTTER AIRCRAFT FOR SURVEYS
Purpose s To make aerial surveys of predetermined areas, the width of
the strips viewed on each side of the aircraft being
variable from one to five times the altitude above the
Any type of survey may be planned and carried out in either
a Beaver or Otter aircraft providing the area to be viewed
on each side of the aircraft is within the multiple of one
to five times the altitude.
P lanning Surveys ;
1. Decide on the desired altitude and width of strips on
each side of aircraft.
2. Determine position number on strut at which ribbons
will be attached. (Divide altitude into width of strip on
Strut positions are marked and numbered 0,1,2,3*4? & 5»
"0" Position provides the bottom line of sight and coin-
cides with the float.
Any one of the other numbers provides the top line of sight
and the area viewed on each side of the aircraft between
these lines is the altitude times the number of the top
line of sight. For example, at an altitude of 500 feet
above the ground, strips 500 feet wide will be viewed with
the ribbon attached at No. 1 Position, 2500 feet will be
viewed on each side with the ribbon attached at No. 5
Tape, placed across the window in use, provides the rear
3. Establish a height above sea-level at which the survey
is to be flown (find height of area to be surveyed above
sea-level, to an average of this height add the desired
altitude of the aircraft.)
Flying Survey s
The track to be flown, the position of the ribbons on the
struts and the flight altitude above sea-level should be
marked on the maps to be used. This information must be
available each time the survey is carried out, the inform-
ation gathered is then comparative regardless of change
in aircraft or personnel making the survey.
(in hilly country or over large areas, it may by necessary
to use different flight altitudes for particular parts of
the survey. These changes must be noted and used consist-
antly on future flights.)
The observers must align the bottom of the tape on the
window with the ribbon on the strut, the area seen
between this line and the aircraft float is the area to
Aircraft should be flown at normal cruising speeds, the
use of flaps creates a downwash deflecting the ribbons
and causing an incorrect viewing angle.
For winter surveys when the aircraft is on skis, the float
position may be represented by additional streamers
attached to the wing struts at position "0", this coin-
cides with the float position and provides the bottom
line of sight.
Marking Aircraft Struts and Windows :
DHC2 BEAVER -
Place a piece of tape across the window in each cargo
door, the bottom of the tape must be 2 inches from the
top of the window, (if desired, the entire top 2 inches
of the window may be blan.cd out.)
Measure up from the fuselage end of the wing strut the
18 3/8 inches
52 1/8 "
58 27/32 "
63 3/4 "
67 1/8 "
Paint a thin line and number each of these positions.
Attache a light string or ribbon four feet in length
to the strut at the position required.
Marking Aircraft Struts and Windows :
Place a piece of tape across the cabin windows to be
used (usually the third and fourth window from the front
on both sides.) The bottom of the tape must be four
inches from the top of the window, (if desired, the
entire top 4 inches of the window may be blanked out.)
Measure up from the fuselage end of the wing strut the
e from Horizontal
38 13/16 "
57 7/16 "
65 7/8 "
Paint a thin line and number each of these positions.
Attach a light string or ribbon four feet in length
to the strut at the position required.
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- 24 -
PELEE ISLAND PHEASANT SHOOT - 1958
STATISTICS AND COMMENTS
L. J. Stock
Season - October 29th and 30th
Bag Limit - 9 cocks and 2 hens
No. of Hunters - Non-res. - 1001
No. of hunters who shot their limit 11 birds
(n = 457) - 49%
Total birds bagged Cocks Hens
First day (n s 450)
Second day (n s 401)
Birds Per Hunter
Total Cocks & Hens
Hours per hunter
Birds per hunter hour
Crippling Loss (totals based on approx. k0% sample).
(n = 449)
(n = 453)
Total $ of Bag Total % of Bag
Crippled - hit but not retrieved 2138 23.8 446 19.7
Picked up - shot by another
hunter 594 6.7 731 32.3
Found dead but not picked up 263 2.9 1290 57.0
Estimate of loss and illegal kill 1304 15 2263 100.0
Legal bag 8694 2263
Total kill 9998 4526
Total Cocks and Hens = 14,524
- 25 -
Sex and Age Ratios at the Shoot (n » 1258)
Adult d : Juvenile <J - 1 : 4.3
Adult 9 : Juvenile 2 - 1 ; 1,65
Adult 2 : Juvenile - 1 : 4.9
Sex and Age Composition of the Bag (n s 328, first day)
Adult c? - 19.3$
Adult 2 - 8.9
Juvenile cf - 56.7
Juvenile 2 - 14.6
Total Juveniles - 71.5
Sex Ratios of the Population
Pre-season October 27-28 (n - 2196) 1 s 1.5
Post season November 4 (n - 1917) 1 : 16.8
Population Estimates Using the Kelker Index
Number of Birds Before the Hunt Number of Birds After the Hunt
Cocks 10704 706
Hens 15977 11712
Totals 26681 12418
.. 26 --
MID -WINTER WATERFOWL INVENTORY
G. P. Boyer
Canadian Wildlife Service.
The same areas were covered as in previous years. Ground
counts were made by voluntary co-operators and aerial counts were
carried out by an Ontario Dept. of Lands and Forests Beaver air-
craft with personnel from Kemptville, Tweed and Lake Erie Districts
taking part .
Weather and Water Conditions - as reported:
1. Kemptville District - St. Lawrence River completely frozen over
from Quebec Border to Kingston except^ for large portions of open
water at Ivy Lea Bridge and Prescott. Other than these, there were
only a few small open "pot-holes". There was a decrease of 70.3
per cent over the 1958 count of waterfowl .
2. Tweed - The only open water was along the outside shore of
Prince Edward Co. and Amherst Island., other than small open patches
near the outlet of West Lake and the couth-west end of Wolfe Island
There was an increase from 1,240 ducks c v *rved in 1958,, and 6,600
3- Lake Erie District - Lake Erie entirely frozen over from the
shore line to the horizon. Marshes and inland streams were com-
pletely frozen over. Areas of open water included Lake Ontario,
north part of the -Old Welland Canal, the Niagara River, Outer
Long Point Bay, approximately 10 per cent of the Detroit River,
pockets in Lake St. Clair and 5 per cent of the St. Clair River.
There was an estimated 49 per cent decrease of all waterfowl. The
only increase in major species was with Black Ducks and Mergansers.
Others all showed a decrease.
GROUND SERVE YS
In general it appeared that the cold weather caused severe
ice conditions which had the tendency to decrease the number of
waterfowl wintering over the region as a whole. Local increases
were noted at Brockville, Hamilton, Brantford (Grand River)
Kitchener (Grand River) . However this increase appeared to be
caused more by the birds congregating in the smaller water areas
available for them in the region as a whole.
- 27 -
Ring necked Duck
X This figure was erroneously given as 90,131 in 1958
- 2d -
NORTHERN DISTRIBUTION OF WOODCOCK IN ONTARIO
G. F. Boyer
This report is an attempt to classify the northern limits
of distribution of the woodcock in Ontario. Thanks are expressed
to Dr. A. E. Allin, Port Arthur, Messers. H. G. Lumsden and J. A.
Macfie, Carman Douglas, Ted Hall, Ontario Department of Lands and
Forests and Mr. James L. Baillie of the Royal Ontario Museum of
Zoology for furnishing records. Reports from Mr. G. F. Coyne,
District Forester, Swastika and Mr. Wm. Morris, biologist, Sudbury
District were also used.
There are sight records for Onakawana and Ft. Albany from
the R.O.M.Z. local lists file.
Swastika District (from report by Mr. G. F. Coyne)
At least 20 birds sighted by Mr. Coyne in 1958. The most
northern record was for Maisonville Township.
A nest was found in June, 1958, by a tree planting crew in
Fall - One bird shot on Sept. 19, 19 58 in Marter Twp. by
G. F. Coyne.
- Two birds shot on Sept. 19, 1958 in Hudson Twp. by
G. F. Coyne.
Remarks - Woodcock have been definitely identified in Swastika
District since 1954 (Coyne).
Gogama District (J. A. Macfie)
One seen by J. A. Macfie on April 30, 1959 at Gogama.
Other records are, April 21+, 1957 at Gogama and May 5, 1957 in
In September, 1957 a hunter shot a woodcock in Churchill
Twp. near Gogama.
- 29 -
W hite River (Carman Douglas)
"The mating display here (White River) is so prolonged
that I can only assume that they nest here." No nests or young have
been found and the birds are far from common in the fall and are
seldom seen during the hunting season. Apparently the Woodcock is
found in the spring wherever suitable habitat exists in the district
Cochrane District (E. L. Hall)
No woodcock have been reported in this district.
Sudbury District (from report by Wm. Morris)
Woodcock singing grounds were located by Morris in 1957
in the following areas: Marshay, Aylmer, Bezzard, Neelon and
They are also numerous records and singing ground counts
on Manitoulin Island by Lumsden, Hunn and Morris.
Sault Ste. Marie
First found by Lumsden and Smith on St. Joseph v s Island in
Singing ground census, 195 5 «
Hilton Twp. - 3«9 miles - 12 birds (St. Joseph's Island).
Goulais River - 4«9 miles 21 - 23 birds (west and north of
Sault Ste. Marie) .
H. G. Lumsden reported woodcock at Thessalon.
There are nesting records for woodcock on Michipicoten
Island, Lake Superior (R.O.M.Z.).
Port Arthur District (Dr. A. E. Allin)
First recorded in 1937 about 15 miles west of Port Arthur
by Terry Shortt of the R.O.M.Z.
Nest and eggs found eight miles west of Fort William in
May, 193S (Dr. A. E. Allin and Col. L. S. Dear).
Woodcock continued to extend their range between 193$ and
1949 and were reported in various areas from Whitefish Lake 50 miles
to the southwest to Dublin Creek, 100 miles to the northeast (of
Port Arthur) .
- 30 -
Subsequent to 1949 the species appears to have declined
in numbers. In 1953 four were recorded by Dr. Allin near Cloud Lake,
30 miles southwest of Fort William and in 1959 a Mr. Goddard
reported finding a nest with eggs near Port Arthur.
S ioux Lookout District (J. A. Macfie)
Mr. Macfie saw one in a field just outside Sioux Lookout
F ort Frances District
Mr. Lumsden reports that he was not able to find any
woodcock in this district.
- 32 -
SOME OBSERVATIONS OF THE BEHAVIOUR
<OF A PACK OF WOLVES IN WINTER
During the past three winters we have been recording
sightings and the travel routes of wolves occupying an area measuring
roughly ten miles square immediately south and east of Minisinakwa
Lake near Gogama. A similar number of wolves seem to travel about
the same circuit each year, feeding on small animals, an occasional
big game kill and perhaps a garbage dump. These are the observations
for the winter of 195$- 59. We succeeded in getting very little
information due to the fact that the aircraft was usually busy at
other jobs, and out of the District entirely for ten days of each
month. Deep, loose snow soon curtailed our efforts to follow wolf
trails on the ground to observe their habits closely. If a proper
study of this nature was to be made, it would require the full-time
services of two or three men with the free use of an aircraft. The
following are merely notes that would be of interest if such work was
undertaken here in the future.
The District aircraft first became available for Fish and
Wildlife use on January 19th. During moose census work that was
then undertaken fresh wolf tracks were noted in the study area crossing
Duckbreast Lake and on January 20 and 21, the east-west trail was
followed back to where it was lost in fresh snow, and ahead to where
it reached Minisinakwa Lake a mile from Gogama, a total of about
twelve miles. One-half to two-thirds of this distance was in timber,
the rest on lake and stream.
The fresh trail (it appeared to have been made by about four
wolves) began three trail miles east of Duckbreast Lake at the remains
of a moose which had been killed by a hunter a month earlier. In the
other direction, the wolves had killed and eaten a ruffed grouse four
trail miles west of Duckbreast Lake and a mile further on visited the
remains (a few bones and hair) of a second moose. Parts of the spinal
column were found, and the position of hind leg bones suggested it
had died in a natural lying position, so this moose could have died
after escaping with bullet wounds in the hunting season. Two miles
further west there was evidence of cannibalism among the wolves. The
man who found the evidence described it thuss
"At ls30 p.m. I saw blood on the trail in a balsam thicket.
Thinking it to be a rabbit kill I stooped to look for evidence, and
to my surprise I found wolf hair, and fragments of bone and bits of
intestine about wolf-size. I also collected some scats at this place.
The snow was hard packed over an area of ten feet or more. I then
- 33 -
searched around the area, finding a few yards away a bed in the snow
around which there was blood and wolf hair, and close by more hair
hanging on a bush five feet above the ground. There was no blood
showing on the trail before or after the incident, and on the trail
that left the place I could not definitely establish if the pack had
decreased in number, as they tended to travel more in single file
than before. It could not be concluded just what took place here,
whether the pack got into a fight over a kill, or were so hungry
that they singled out one of their members for a meal."
After January 21, snow in the bush was too deep and soft to
permit further work on the ground. During the rest of the winter,
we frequently flew over the area looking for tracks when returning
from other jobs. A group of four wolves was seen from the air on
three successive days (Jan. 26-2$) between the Mollie River and
Londonderry Lake, along a trail leading 12 miles south and east from
the point where we stopped following the wolves on Jan. 21. This
trail ended at what appeared to be a third moose kill, but we were
unable to verify it. These at first seemed to be the wolves which
had eaten one of their group, but on Jan. 26 fresh wolf tracks were
also seen in the vicinity of the hunter kill, so it appeared that
there possibly were two groups of wolves in the study area, or else
one large pack that at times divided into two. On Jan. 30, the tracks
of the four wolves were followed north from the presumed third kill,
and lost in drifted snow at Grover Lake, half way back to the hunter
The aircraft was away from the District from Feb. 1 to 11.
On Feb. 13, a single wolf was seen digging in the snow at the hunter
kill. Two days previous to this a wolf was trapped and killed at the
Gogama garbage dump. There had been evidence earlier that wolves
from the study area were visiting this garbage dump, and the tracks
of the wolf at the hunter kill led back at least half way to Gogama,
so it seems probable the trapped wolf was its former companion. The
single wolf remained alone at the hunter kill for much of the next
month, being seen there about three more times, the last being on
March 11, probably reluctant to tackle the deep snow alone, preferring
to stay near the site of the moose kill, which by then must have been
In March the tracking of wolves from the air became diffi-
cult, due at first to the abundance of other animal tracks, and later
the hardness of the snow. We tried during that time to re-locate
the four wolves seen in late January, to shed light on whether there
were two groups of wolves in the study area, or if only one wolf of
an original group of five had survived to mid-March.
- 34 -
WOLF POISONING EXPERIMENT , KENORA DISTRICT, 1959
Under a directive provided by the Division of Research,
Maple, Ontario, an experimental wolf poisoning program was carried
out during the period from March 3rd to April 2nd, 1959.
The main objectives of the experiment were to measure the
effects of poison 1080 on a pack or single coyote or wolves. It
was not designed as a control measure to kill large numbers of
animals, but was set up to try to find the most efficient means of
controlling wolf populations by poisoning that would have a minimum
effect on other forms of wildlife.
Under the directive, an area with a heavy wolf population,
at least five miles from farms or other human habitation, was to be
chosen for the experiment.
Prebaiting with venison was to be carried out prior to the
actual placing of 1080 in the bait. The station was to be visited
every second day during the prebaiting period to learn what species
of birds or animals were feeding there. Routes to the site were to
be posted with warning signs.
The laboratory at Maple was to supply cubes of venison im-
pregnated with compound 1080 which were to be frozen to the bait at
the station in order that birds would have little chance of removing
the poisoned bait. Only one poisoned bait was to be placed out at
one time and the station checked each day. The carcasses of all
animals known or suspected to have been killed by 1080 were to be
frozen and shipped to Maple at the conclusion of the experiment.
Location of Bait Station
The site selected for the bait station is situated 15 miles
northeast of Kenora on Silver Lake. Portions of the lake fall within
the Townships of Pettypiece and Jackman. The lake is approximately
six miles long and two miles wide with one large and five smaller
islands situated off the north shore.
This lake was selected for the bait station as it was only
a short hop from Kenora via aircraft and in the event of poor flying
weather it could be reached by car with only a two mile walk over the
ice to the bait station proper.
- 35 -
The lake is accessible by car over a private road built by
and maintained by the Ontario Minnesota Pulp and Paper Company. The
travel on this road is restricted largely to vehicles of the above
mentioned Company. The road runs more or less northeast and southwest
parallel to the south shore of the lake for a distance of about three
Mr. Harold Anderson of Kenora, who operates a tourist estab-
lishment on the lake during the summer months as well as being the
holder of a trapline licence for the area, was contacted and questioned
as to the wildlife status on his ground and particularly the area
adjacent to Silver Lake. Outside of Mr. Anderson's camp, which is
situated on the southwest corner of the lake there are no other camps
in the vicinity.
On the basis of Mr. Anderson's information we were able to
establish the fact that moose and deer occur in good numbers as well
as fur-bearers. The area is known to harbour a fair wolf population
and with Mr. Anderson's help, we plotted the route of a pack of five
timber wolves that crossed the lake quite frequently during the
On March 3rd, 1959 > our officers flew in to Silver Lake to
begin the prebaiting of the bait station.
A known wolf run was the actual site selected for placing
the bait which was 500 yards off the southwest tip of the largest
island on the lake. (See attached map).
A hole was cut through the ice to bring the water up. The
front quarter of a moose weighing 64 pounds was used as bait. Heavy
scrap iron was wired to the bait with about three feet of haywire
between the bait and the scrap iron.
The scrap iron was then dropped into the hole past the ice
thickness. This was done in order to eliminate picking up the bait
and destroying it at the conclusion of the experiment. The moose meat
was then frozen securely to the ice with the largest portion protrud-
ing from the depression in the ice.
We next placed six foot balsam trees exactly 20 feet on each
side of the bait as markers and in turn attached poison bait signs on
each tree. The same type of sign was also placed on trees where our
snowshoe trail left the road leading to the lake.
The prepared 10&0 bait arrived in Kenora on March 4. On
Thursday March 5th we flew into Silver Lake to set the bait.
- 36 -
The site had not been visited by either birds or animals
during the prebaiting period.
The weather since prebaiting had been below freezing and the
prebait was securely frozen to the ice. A hole adjacent to the moose
meat was chopped through the ice for sinking the containers and for
washing the hands after the 1080 had been handled. Rubber gloves
which had come with the containers were donned. A hole was chopped
in the frozen moose meat and the bait, about 10 inches by 4 inches
was inserted and wired to the prebait and then frozen in with slush.
The containers and gloves were then dropped through the ice hole and
the hole slushed in.
The initial plans called for the station to be visited every
day. This was found to be impossible due to our regular duties and
other work that cropped up from time to time.
During the period from March 3rd up to and including April
3rd, 14 visits were made to the site. Nine trips were made with the
use of aircraft and five on snowshoes.
The weather ranged from plus 25 degrees F at the start of
the experiment to around plus 40 degrees F during the last 10 days
the station was in operation.
The greatest snow depth recorded in the bush in the locality
of the station was 23 inches, while on the lake it was four inches,
however with the warm weather prevailing this snow was soon gone
leaving the ice fairly bare with only the odd patch of snow here and
No activity was observed on the lake or near the bait until
March 10th, 1959. On this date the station was visited on snowshoes.
While en route to the bait over the ice, one deer track and one wolf
track were noted about a mile from the bait. On arrival at the site
of the bait three wolf tracks were observed. The wolves had come from
the direction of the larger island, east of the bait, to within 50
feet of the station where they stopped and apparently milled around
before heading in a southerly direction to the mainland.
The tracks of a fourth wolf were observed. These tracks came
from the south heading in the general direction of the large island.
- 37 -
Three inches of fresh snow had fallen three days previously,
making signs easy to read.
The next activity not
1959, when a fox passed within
sniffed around a bit and then h
No more signs were ob
from March 13th until April 1st
aircraft. Four ravens and one
bait station. After landing it
around that the birds had been
but no dead animals or birds we
bait was completely gone and it
or carried it away as the weath
making sign reading extremely d
took off in the aircraft for a
or birds. The results were neg
planning to return the next day
shoreline and adjacent areas.
ed near the bait was on March lBth,
15 feet of the station, apparently
served during the intervening period
, when the station was visited via
gull were observed flying up from the
was noted from the scats scattered
feeding quite extensively on the bait
re found. The portion of the poisoned
is not known what had taken the bait
er had turned very mild the last week
ifficult on the bare ice. We then
search of the lake for any dead animals
ative. We then returned to Kenora,
for a more detailed search of the
The next day three of our officers flew into the lake to
continue the search. As mentioned previously the weather had turned
quite mild during the past ten days which left the shoreline bare of
any snow, this coupled with the lack of snow on the ice made it
impossible to find any tracks of animals that may have taken the bait
and headed into the bush.
From old signs observed it was noted that a good concentra-
tion of wolves were frequenting the area. The bones and head of a
four year old buck deer that had been killed by wolves sometime during
the early part of the winter were found approximately one-half mile
from the bait station.
We were picked up with the aircraft that afternoon and
returned to Kenora. After conferring with P. A. Thompson, Senior
Conservation Officer, it was decided to terminate the experiment for
Although no direct evidence of poisoning was found it is
felt that we did learn a few things from the experiment.
We do know that the type of terrain and the availability
of winter food has a direct bearing on the home range of a pack or
group of wolves. This is evidenced by the fact that on the basis of
Mr. Anderson ? s information we were able to plot the route of one pack
of wolves in the Silver Lake area.
- 33 -
The moose meat used in the bait this year may not be too
attractive to wolves. If permission is granted to continue the
experiment next winter, the natural winter food of the wolf will be
used, which in this area is primarily deer.
We believe that it is most important to set out the bait
as soon as possible after the freeze up in order to properly assess
the results. We recommend that in the event permission is granted
to carry on this coming winter the prepared 1080 be made available
to us early in the fall.
It is felt that the officers who participated in the program
this winter have had sufficient training and instruction in the
handling and setting of poison that any one of them will be able
to carry out any future projects of this nature.
- 40 -
WOLF PROJECT FOR SIOUX LOOKOUT DISTRICT, 1959
Jo D. Sayers
This project was initiated to collect information on a
method of censusing wolves from an aircraft using artificial scent
posts. During this censusing program a wolf poisoning project was
carried out, also any information concerning wolves such as big game
kills was recorded.
Wolf Census Pro ject
Between February 5th and February 11th., thirty-two scent
posts were set up at approximately ten mile intervals. This circuit
was laid out in such a manner to give a complete coverage of all the
forest types, also covering good moose, deer, and some caribou range.
The posts were set out fifty yards from the lee shore of
lakes and usually off a point of land or near the mouth of a river.
A dry piece of tree was used with three to four feet of it projecting
above the surface and a liberal amount of wolf scent was sprayed
around the base of the posto
It was hoped that a check of the post could be made at
weekly intervals but this did not materialize due to poor weather
conditions or no aircraft available for the project. Three complete
circuits were made, with some of the posts closer to Sioux Lookout
being checked more often.
Of the thirty-two post sites, twelve showed definite signs
of having wolves in the general area. During the period of inspec-
tion success was obtained only once in wolves being attracted to a
post. At this site which is a fairly small lake, wolf tracks were
observed when the post was first established on February 11th..
On February 25th., wolf tracks were observed on the far shore of the
lake and one wolf had passed within one hundred feet of the post as
it crossed the lake. The next inspection of this site was on March
l$th. when signs showed that two wolves had been milling around the
post and wolf excreta was found five feet from the post.
At one of the other post locations a single wolf passed
within fifty yards of the pole but paid no attention to the scent.
At two other pose cites a fox was attracted to the post but only
came within six feet of it.
It is possible that in the long intervals between some of
the inspections, tracks could have been missed due to high winds or
snowfall. The unusual early mild weather terminated the project
earlier than was expected although on the last inspection of the
posts very little fresh wolf sign was observed,.
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- 42 -
From this sample we were able to determine the health
condition of thirteen of the nineteen deer killed. Only one of the
animals, number 19, showed a poor health condition. This kill was
found quite a distance north of what is considered good deer habitat
so it is quite possible the animal could have suffered from mal-
nutrition . As we know that twelve of the nineteen deer killed were
in good condition we can assume that we have a healthy deer herd in
Wolf Poison i ng Pro.j ect
Type of B aits
Five baits were set out, one being seven medium size white-
fish and the other four were two hindquarters and two front quarters
of deer meat. The four quarters of deer meat were from two deer
which had been killed by wolves.
The first bait set out was a hind quarter of deer meat
which was loaded with strychnine when the meat was still frozen.
This was done by puncturing the meat at two to three inch intervals,
then adding the amount of poison that would stay on a ten cent
piece into each hole. The holes were then plugged up with pieces
of meat or fat. The second bait which was also a hind quarter of
frozen deer meat which was loaded in the same manner, except that the
meat was allowed to thaw out and give the poison a chance to work
into the meat. The two front quarters of deer meat were loaded
when the meat was still soft. Incisions were made in the meat and
the strychnine powder was sprinkled into the cuts. On the whitefish
two cuts were made along each side of the back bone, then the poison
was sprinkled in them. A half an ounce of Strychnine Merck (Strych-
nine Alkaloid) in powder form was used to load the five baits.
Observa tion s
On February 11th., bait #1 was set out on Trout Lake which
is situated twenty miles northeast of Red Lake. The area of Trout
Lake is roughly 140 square miles. A pack of wolves estimated at
seven or eight animals had been travelling on this lake. The hind
quarter of dser meat was frozen into the ice fifty yards off a
point of land around which the wolves had been milling and playing.
Two evergreen trees were placed thirty feet to each side of the bait
with signs on them concerning the danger of the bait. After having
set the bait, a fresh moose kill was found on an island 3/4 of a
mile away c
On February iBth., bait #1 was checked but there were no
signs of any animals having visited it. A check was made of the old
moose kill and tracks indicated that two wolves had been back to it.
Bait #2 was then set cut 75 yards off the shore of the island near the
moose kill. This bait was also a hind quarter of deer meat and it
was set in the same manner as the first bait.
- 43 -
On February 25th., when approaching bait #2 a wolf was
seen lying on the ice two hundred yards from the bait. When the
aircraft circled the area the wolf got up and ran into the bush.
After landing and checking bait #2 it was found that the wolf had
not gone any closer than where it had first been seen lying on the
ice. Ravens had been pecking at the bait but not enough had been
eaten to harm them. Bait #1 had fresh tracks of three wolves
milling around within five feet of it but the bait had not been
On March 12th., eight dead wolves were found at the baits,
five near bait #2 and three near bait #1. Three dead ravens and
the remains of a cross fox were near bait #2. One dead raven was
found near bait #1. Bait #2 had been completely eaten down to the
ice level whereas bait #1 was only half eaten. Due to the length
of time expired since the last inspection of the baits, any signs
of erratic behaviour on the part of the poisoned animals could not
be observed. From the tracks that were still visible it would
appear that the fox had been to the bait first then wandered 90 yards
from the bait before dying. TracM indicated that two of the wolves
had eaten the fox leaving only the hind legs and the tail. It was
estimated that the wolves had not been dead for more than two days
as they were not completely frozen. The sexes of the wolves were
five males and three females. Three of the males were nearly black
in colour with the remainder being the common grey colour. The
attached diagram shows the location of the dead animals in relation
to the baits.
On March l#th. bait #3 was set out on an unnamed lake
35 miles northeast of Red Lake. A pack of three or four wolves had
been staying in the vicinity of this lake most of the winter. Seven
medium sized whitefish were frozen into a mound of snow, 50 yards
from shore. The suggested method of securing the fish to the mound
is to place the fish in the snow mound with a small part of the back
exposed, then freeze them in. In this case the fish were shoved
into the mound head first with about 1/4 of the fish exposed. It was
felt that due to the mild weather there was less chance of the fish
becoming free of the ice by using this method.
An inspection of the dead wolves on Trout Lake resulted in
no signs of any animals feeding on the carcasses.
On March 19th., the two front quarters of deer meat were set
out, one on Ord Lake and the other on Bailey Lake. On Ord Lake, which
is roughly six square miles in size, the bait was set out 50 yards
from shore near the remains of an old deer kill. Four wolves were
seen lying on the ice at Bailey Lake and after landing and inspecting
the area the remains of an old moose kill was found. The bait was
set 60 yards from the shore of this lake which is lj square miles
- hrk -
Locations of Poisoned Animals
12 5 yards
100 yards 60 ^ ards
51° 07 ?
Scale: 4 in. = 1 mile
- 45 -
March 23rd, baits at Ord and Bailey Lakes were checked with
no signs of animals having been near the baits.
April 6th., bait #3 was checked to find all the fish had
been pulled loose from the snow mound and were scattered about.
One dead raven was found thirty feet from the snow mound. All of
the fish had been partly eaten and as none of the bones were broken
it would appear that only ravens had been feeding on them. The bush
area near the location of the bait was examined for other dead
ravens but none were found. The remains of the fish were sunk
through a hole in the ice.
The wolf carcasses on Trout Lake were checked to find the
wolf farthest from bait #1 had been half eaten. It had also been
dragged 100 yards from its original location. The mild spell of
weather for the past week had obliterated any tracks of animals that
had been feeding on the wolf. A cross fox was found ten feet from
bait #1 which had previously been half eaten by the wolves. It
was thought that the fox could also have been feeding on the wolf
but after being examined by the District Biologist only deer and
rabbit meat were found in its stomach. One of the wolves near bait
§2 gave evidence of ravens starting to feed on the exposed meat
where the head of the animal had been cut off. In the event that no
more inspections could be made of the dead animals all the wolves
were punctured through the body with an ice chisel to assist them
Bait #4 at Ord Lake had no signs of any animals visiting
At bait #5 on Bailey Lake one red fox and a raven was found.
A fresh track of a wolf indicated it had visited the dead fox and
the bait but did not touch either of them.
April 6th was the last check made of the baits.
Scent Post Survey
1. It is felt that the failure to have better results in attracting
wolves to the posts could be the fault of the wolf scent. The
reason for this assumption being twelve of the thirty-two post
locations showed definite signs of having wolves in the general
area, yet only one post was visited, being on a small lake
roughly two square miles in area.
2. District-wise this project was very beneficial indirectly in
that it gave us a better picture of the locations and movements
of the various wolf packs in our area.
- 1^6 -
3» Another important factor in conducting this program was it enabled
us to gather far more information on our winter kill of big game by
1 A project of this type should be started in the early part of
January when the wolves appear to be more active,,
2 e There would be less chance of missing animal tracks near the
baits due to mild weather which happened in the case of this
year's project during the month of March „
An attempt should be made to check the baits at least once a
- 47 -
WOLF POISONING PROJECT, PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT, EAST SIDE, 1959
E. J. Swift
In February, 1959, the District Forester met with the Fish
and Wildlife staff at the Port Arthur District Office to outline
work re Wolf Control, 1959. Conservation Officer W. J. McKeown, was
selected to carry out the project on the west side of Port Arthur,
and the author on the east.
Wolf Lake was the selected site of the east project.
Located in Glen Township, Wolf Lake is approximately six miles long
and a mile to a mile and a half in width. It was reported that a
pack of five or six wolves were running this area and that deer had
The lake was checked and an old kill, with just blood and
hair remaining, was found. Two trails were seen on the west shore
so this area was selected as a good site.
A ham of venison, secured from a car kill, was used as
bait. The meat weighed fifteen to twenty pounds. Bait was taken to
the Nipigon residence and was not allowed to freeze. A stick, 3/4 of
an inch in diameter, was sharpened as a tool, and 2 5 punctures were
made about an inch apart to a depth of one to one and a half inches
in the bait. Strychnine crystals were then inserted in each puncture
using a table knife, taking only the amount of crystals that would
stay on the first quarter inch of the blade. The punctures were then
closed with another stick and the bait placed in the vehicle to freeze
On February 17, a hole was chopped through the ice and snow
was placed in the water on Wolf Lake. The bait was pressed into
this slush so that only an inch to one and one-half inches remained
above the level of the ice. Slush was then packed around the bait
so that only the surface showed. Bait was at least fifty yards from
shore. Two small spruce trees were placed about 30 feet from the
baits, one on each side.
The snow depth on the lake was eight inches with small, wind-
packed drifts, and the temperature was well below zero. Poison bait
signs were placed on the marker trees. Abitibi employees were informed
and the gateman was asked if he would inform any curious anglers to
stay well clear of the site. No trouble was encountered in this
On February 19, the baits were inspected and there was no
- 43 -
On February 25 the bait was untouched, and completely
drifted over. Two wolves ran within thirty feet of the bait.
March 4 the bait was untouched and there were no tracks.
On March 12, five timber wolves, three male and two female
were found at the site, three of them with their teeth still on the
bait. The other two were six feet and ten feet from the bait. The
head of a fox was also found, the remainder having been eaten by
ravens. There was no sign of secondary poisoning. The wolf found
six feet from the bait had a hole in the left side about one inch
in diameter, and entrails were hanging out. The remainder of the
bait was covered with snow.
On March 13? one female wolf was found that had died during
the night, and was located twelve feet from the bait. Fox tracks
were skirting the carcasses.
On March 17, D. D«Agostini, Fish and Wildlife Supervisor,
marked the wolves. The female wolf was pulled out of the snow by
two other wolves, and the bait had been circled.
On March 18, both the bait and the carcasses were untouched.
March 23, one or two wolves were visiting the site. A small
portion of hindquarter of female wolf was eaten, but there was no sign
of secondary poisoning.
On March 30, the female wolf previously moved was all gone,
and all trace of this animal lost because of crust conditions. Two
hams of venison were placed fifty feet from the outer marker. This
bait was prepared in the same amnner as the previous bait, but was
not frozen in due to the mild weather.
On April 1, the new bait was untouched, and there were two
and one half to three inches of water on the ice.
April 6, one dead raven was present, and the heads of the
remaining five wolves were taken to the District Office for shipment
On checking the bait a week later, it was not possible to
get on the ice. Stop logs had been placed on the dam, and water was
raised. There was approximately 15 feet of open water between the
shore and the ice. Carcasses left on the ice sank when the lake
Camp 36 Project
This project was started before the District Office meeting
in February, and was just an experiment using a dead horse as bait.
Camp 36 is on the Great Lakes Paper Company Limits, on the northeast
corner of Black Sturgeon Lake.
- 49 -
A slit 12 inches in length was made in the right rear leg
of the dead horse, a four inch slit on the inner side of the leg, a
six inch slit on the right front leg, and finally a six inch slit
on the right side of the neck. All these slits were sprinkled with
strychnine powder. Several visits were made to this site and it
was found that the wolves seemed suspicious of the bait and would
not touch it. One raven was found dead. Fox were followed for
distances of half a mile and were not found suffering any ill effects
from eating the bait. The bait was burned on completion of this
project. Failure in this particular project could be because the
horse was frozen solid at the time of starting.
Also, the powder was at least three years old that was used
on this project.
Camp 40 Project
On February 24, three beaver carcasses were placed within
200 yards of a dead horse, the latter being almost entirely eaten
by foxes, ravens, and the occasional wolf. The bait was frozen into
the snow bank along the main haul road of Camp 40, Mclvor Township.
This was carried out after the camp had closed and there was a gate
on the road to prevent the public from going into the camp. One
beaver was slit in eight places, each slit five inches in length and
one-half inch deep. Strychnine crystals were then sprinkled in each
slit, and the slits were closed. Two other beaver were frozen into
the bank six feet from the first. The hind quarters of these were
only lightly sprinkled.
On March 10, there was no activity around the baits.
On March IS, a pack of wolves ran down the middle of the
road within six feet of the baits. Two of this pack walked around
the bait and urinated on the top left of the bait.
On March 23, there was no activity.
March 26, the beaver was untouched. Front quarters of the
fresh killed deer were placed on top of the beaver. Skin on this
deer was pulled back and 15 punctures in the meat were made with a
stick. Crystals were inserted with a knife same as in the Wolf Lake
project. The hide was then pulled back in place to protect from the
On April 1, the deer bait was torn apart. One large piece
was found buried approximately 50 yards from the site. One male
timber wolf was found approximately 700 feet from the bait site.
The hind quarters of the beaver pulled from the snowbank was eaten
A further check of the surrounding area will be made at a
later date. It is felt that more than one wolf was killed on this
project, but with snow in the bush it made it difficult to spot dead
- 50 -
1. Deer meat is the most preferred bait as far as this project is
concerned. Beaver is second, with horse meat in the last category.
2. Bait that can be carried away should not be used.
3. The site of a previous kill may be an important factor in the
success of a project.
4- The project should start immediately after freeze-up.
5. Powdered strychnine does not seem to be as effective as crystals.
6. Meat that is not frozen when the poison is added seems to be quite
effective compared to meat that is frozen when poisoned. Poison
likely filters through unfrozen meat, but in frozen meat stays in
one area. The animal can take a bite and walk for a long distance
if it has a pocket of poison in the piece it is carrying.
- 51 -
WOLF POISONING PROJECT, PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT, WEST SIDE, 1959
W. J. McKeown
The wolf poisoning project in the Port Arthur District was
carried out between February 22 and April 30, 1959. During this
period, baits were set out on three different sites; Lac Des Mille
Lacs, Carre Lake, and Moe Lake. All baits were set out according to
instructions received from Maple, with the exception of those baits
on Moe Lake. Results and observations made on the three sites are
Lac Des Mille Lacs (Set #1)
February 22, 1959 - Two baits consisting of 45 pounds of moose meat
and 3 5 pounds of deer meat were set out approxima-
tely 50 yards from shore, with two small evergreens
approximately 25 yards on either side of the baits.
March 4, 1959
March 11, 1959
March 19, 1959
April 1, 1959
- First check showed one wolf had passed approximately
50 yards from the bait.
- No visible sign of tracks. The baits were still
- One dead raven was observed approximately 20 feet
from the bait. There were no other signs.
- Observations disclosed two wolves, one male and
one female. These wolves had carried the venison
400 feet from the original set, where they were
found approximately 10 feet from this bait. One
pound of the bait was eaten.
- Venison bait had been entirely eaten and only a
few raven feathers remained. The second bait
consisting of moose meat and dead wolves had not
been touched. These baits were weighted with
concrete blocks at this time and were not revisited.
Carre Lake (Site #2)
February 24, 1959 - Three baits consisting of 75 pounds of fish, one
beaver carcass, and one hind quarter of moose
meat were set out approximately 75 yards from
shore and a distance of 100 yards between each bait.
No markers were set out where the beaver carcass
April 4, 1959
March 4, 1959
- No visible signs observed.
- 52 -
March 19* 1959 - One dead raven approximately 20 feet from the
beaver carcass was observed. Also, one female
wolf was found 50 feet from the beaver carcass.
The other baits were untouched.
April 4? 1959 - One dead eagle found approximately 10 feet from
the set of moose meat. No other signs were present.
April 20, 1959 - All baits with the exception of fish had been
eaten. No further kills were observed in the
surrounding area, covering approximately a 2 50
Moe Lake (Site #3)
March 3 ? 1959 - Two hind quarters of venison were dropped from
aircraft 100 yards from shore and no markers were
left at this site.
March 9? 1955 - One dead raven was found approximately five feet
from the bait.
March 23, 1959 - One female red fox, 150 feet from bait was found.
There were no other signs visible.
April 4> 1959 - All baits including fox had been eaten with no
further signs of any kills in the area. All baits
were set in remote areas, and due to poor flying
conditions, these baits were not visited as often
as was desirable. The wolf heads collected in
this project were sent to Maple for aging.
1. Poison should be inserted in meat in capsule form or possibly
liquid poison could be injected in the bait, as it is believed
that constant freezing and thawing may cause the poison to
2. Baits should be visited at least twice each week, as fresh snow
covers any tracks that may be left.
3. If aircraft cannot be made available for the project, baits should
be set where they can be checked by vehicle.
4. All baits should be set out as soon as safe ice conditions permit.
I would like to thank the following people for their assis-
tance on this project: Pilot Art Burtt, Port Arthur" Pilot Art Colfer,
Fort Frances^ K. J. Tolmie, D. D*Agostini, P. J. Nunan and J„ Lawrence
of Port Arthur.
- 53 -
OCCURRENCE OP THE BLACK CRAPPIE
IN THE ONTARIO WATERS OP LAKE SUPERIOR
R. A. Ryder,
In the summer of 1957 ^ a commercial fisherman turned, over to
Mr. Atkinson , Manager of the Dorion Hatchery, a new fish that he
had never seen before. This fish was an adult specimen of black
crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus ) from Black Bay, the first record
of the black crappie from the Ontario waters of Lake Superior.
This species is common in southwestern and eastern Ontario, in ex-
treme western Ontario in the Rainy Lake and Lake of the Woods
watersheds, and is commonly found in all the Great Lakes with the
exception of Lake Superior. The sudden appearance of this specimen
approximately in the middle of the north shore while records were
lacking at either end of the lake, led to speculation as to
whether these fish were recent immigrants or resulted from an
introduction. In 19^-9 a token planting of adult crappies was made
in Addison Lake on Sibley Peninsula. Addison Lake drains into
Black Bay by means of a small creek. Later checks on the lake did
not reveal any apparent spawning by these fish. It seems quite
possible that these fish left Addison Lake and migrated to Black
Bay where apparently they have successfully spawned, their progeny
now appearing among the fauna of Black Bay.
One additional record was noted for Black Bay in 1957 but the
specimen could not be obtained. In 1958 two specimens were cap-
tured, one off the Clay Banks of Nipigon Bay by Henry Dampier, a
commercial fisherman from Nipigon. This fish was taken in a
pound net on November 10. Another which was an extremely large
specimen was captured off Spar Island between Nipigon and Black
Bays on the south side of Black Bay Peninsula. This fish was
taken by Mr. Toivo Kivisto of Nipigon, while angling with earth-
worms. A third specimen from Nipigon Bay was rumored, along with
several from Black Bay, but individuals could not be obtained.
It appears as if the black crappie is rapidly becoming esta-
blished on the north shore of Lake Superior. Certainly Black Bay
maintains at least minimal requirements for spawning and survival
of the young. Black crappies are native to Torch or Portage Lake
in the Keewenaw Peninsula of Northern Michigan, This lake is
connected to Lake Superior at both ends by a canal. It seems
possible that the icy waters of adjoining Lake Superior formed an
ecological barrier to this population and prevented their spread.
Because of this condition which prevails over most of Lake
Superior, it seems likely that the appearance of the Black Crappie
in Black Bay resulted from an introduction. However, the recent
northward movement of this species in both Lake Huron and Lake
Michigan leaves some doubt as to the validity of this assumption.
- 54 -
THE EFFECT OF DISTRIBUTING
EYED WHITEFISH (Coregonus clupoaformis , MITCHILL)
AND YELLOW PICKEREL ( Stizostedion vitreun, MITCHILL) EGGS
ON THE COMMERCIAL FISHERIES OF RAINY LAKE, ONTARIO.
C. A. ELSEY
The stocking of yellow pickerel ( Stizostedion vitreum ,
Mit chill) and whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis , Mitchill) eggs
has been carried on since 1921 in Rainy Lake as a management
practice. Biologists in various places across the continent have
questioned this practice and as a result carried out various tests
on the effectiveness of stocking these two species.
Hile (1936) was unable to find any correlation between
numbers of yellow pickerel fry planted and the abundance of fish in
subsequent years in Lake Huron. Van Oosten (1942) found no causal
relationship between plantings of whitefish fry and catch in Lake
Erie. Carlander (1945) on Lake of the Woods, Minnesota could not
demonstrate a correlation between abundance and number of fry
planted. Miller (1946) demonstrated that in six Alberta lakes
plantings of whitefish fry were followed by weaker year classes.
Lapworth (1956) found that in the Bay of Quint e data on hand in-
dicate plantings have little value in increasing whitefish produc-
In 1956, the Department of Lands and Forests closed the
commercial hatchery at Fort Frances. However, in conference with
the commercial fisherman's association, it was agreed that hatchery
stocking would be continued until the local situation could be in-
vestigated and evidence developed showing the value or lack of
value of stocking.
The status is that both yellow pickerel and common
whitefish eggs are collected- on Rainy Lake as in the past. The
eggs are hatched in the Kenora Hatchery and an alternate stocking
programme has been established between Rainy Lake and Lake of the
Woods, eg. in 1959* all available pickerel eggs are planted in
Lake of the Woods and the whitefish eggs are planted in Rainy Lake.
In i960, Lake of the Woods will receive the whitefish eggs and
Rainy Lake will be stocked with pickerel.
Every year samples of scales are obtained from commercial
catches to determine what year groups are represented in their nets
Attempts will be made to correlate commercial catches with years
- 55 -
when eyed eggs were stocked.
This report is an evaluation of stocking whitefish and
yellow pickerel eggs using past stocking records and commercial
RELATION OF HATCHERY DISTRIBUTIONS TO COMMERCIAL CATCHES :
Both pickerel and whitefish. in Rainy Lake, start to show
in the commercial catch when they are four years old and continue
to be caught in some quantity until they are seven years old.
Beyond this age they do not appear to be important.
Years of heavy planting should be followed in due course
(4-7 years) by good catches and smaller plantings by smaller catches
if plantings have had an effect on production.
The standard formula for correlation
r 2 i (NIXY - IXIY) 2 _ ) was used to try
(NZ(X2) - (EX)2) (NX(Y 2 ) - (£Y) 2 )
to locate any possible relationship between stocking and catch.
The symbols are as follows r - coefficient of correlation, X =
number of eyed eggs stocked, and Y = number of pounds of fish
c.ught. N = the number of years studied.
Studies currently being made on Rainy Lake indicate the
possibility that Rainy Lake should be studied as three separate
lakes (herein designated as the North Arm, the East Arm, and Red
Gut Bay). Undoubtedly fish move between these parts, but avail-
able evidence indicates that they can be treated separately.
This study of movements of fish has just been started and it may
be that the populations are not distinct. In the event that this
is true we have also considered the relationship between stocking
and capturing for the entire lake.
The correlation between stocking and capturing both
pickerel and whitefish is shown in Table 1.
In only one case could a significant correlation be
found and this showed that the stocking of whitefish eggs in the
entire lake had a detrimental effect on the catch six years after
stocking rather than a beneficial effect. At the .05 significance
level it would be expected that this would occur in 5 cases out
of one hundred. Therefore, even this one case should not be con-
These correlation coefficient tests show no detectable
effect of planting on return to commercial fisherman.
-j- u-\ \0
-d" ^ NO
- 57 -
The figures herein presented are subject to some criticism
and the criticisms should be set forth.
(a) It would be better if we could present the data in terms of
catch per unit effort rather than total annual catch. The figures
for catch per unit effort are not considered dependable in the
early stages so it has been decided to use total annual catch as
the basis of comparison. In the east arm six commercial fishermen
operated and in the north arm there were nine. In either case if
one lagged for illness or some other reason his efforts were
likely compensated by the activities of others. In Red Gut Bay
there was only one fisherman so there was no compensating effect.
In years when catch per unit effort was low commercial
fishermen tended to fish less than usual because of the poor
economic returns. Either method would show a smaller than usual
It is not believed that the use of total catch rather
than catch per unit effort has made any significant difference in
the values for the correlation coefficient.
(b) Some commercial fishermen have freely advised us that in the
past they have supplied incorrect statements of total catch in
order to gain some supposed benefit. The cases in question vary
from reports of more than total catch to less than total catch.
In each case the men have told us that the changes have been small .
It is believed that the adjustments would balance each
other and can be omitted from our considerations.
(c) Hile (1936) stated that production statistics are in no way
a measure of the abundance of fish. However, our interest is in
returns to commercial and sport fisherman. The actual abundance
of fish is not the significant criterion.
It is not possible to demonstrate that the stocking of
eyed pickerel and whitefish eggs has had any effect on the pro-
duction of whitefish and yellow pickerel in Rainy Lake.
Carlander, V. D. 19^-5 • Age, growth, sexual maturity and popu-
lation fluctuations of tine yellow pike-perch, Stizoste -
dion vitreum (Mitchill) with special reference to the
Commercial Species, Lake of the Woods, Minnesota. Trans
Am Pish. Soc, 19^3, 73: 90-107 .
Hile, Ralph '-1936. The Increase in the abundance of the yellow
p-V^C^-perch, Stizo s^dion vi treum (Mitchill), in Lakes
- 53 -
Huron and Michigan, In relation to the Artificial
Propagation of the Species. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc,
Lapworth, E. D. 1956. The effect of fry plantings on whitefish
production in Eastern Lake Ontario. Jour. Fish. Res.
Bd. of Can., Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 547-55S.
Miller, R. B. 1946. Effectiveness of a Fish Hatchery. Jour, of
Wildl. Management, 10 (4)s3l6-322.
Van Oosten, J. 1942. Relation between the plantings of fry and
the production of whitefish in Lake Erie. Trans. Am.
Fish. Soco, 1941, (71):11S-121.
n cp T LANDS i